Rules in this section apply in any condition of visibility.
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision.
Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into account:
By all vessels:
the state of visibility;
the traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other vessels;
the manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing conditions;
at night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from backscatter of her own lights;
the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of navigational hazards;
the draught in relation to the available depth of water.
Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:
the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar equipment;
any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of interference;
the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;
the number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;
the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible when radar is used to determine the range of vessels or other objects in the vicinity.
Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of collision exists. If there is any doubt such risk shall be deemed to exist.
Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and operational, including long-range scanning to obtain early warning of risk of collision and radar plotting or equivalent systematic observation of detected objects.
Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information, especially scanty radar information.
In determining if risk of collision exists the following considerations shall be among those taken into account:
such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change;
such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel or a tow or when approaching a vessel at close range.
Any action to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due regard to the observance of good seamanship.
Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another vessel observing visually or by radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or speed should be avoided.
If there is sufficient sea-room, alteration of course alone may be the most effective action to avoid a close-quarters situation provided that it is made in good time, is substantial and does not result in another close-quarters situation.
Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be such as to result in passing at a safe distance. The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until the other vessel is finally past and clear.
If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel shall slacken her speed or take all way off by stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.
A vessel which, by any of these Rules, is required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel shall, when required by the circumstances of the case, take early action to allow sufficient sea-room for the safe passage of the other vessel.
A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel is not relieved of this obligation if approaching the other vessel so as to involve risk of collision and shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action which may be required by the Rules of this part.
A vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded remains fully obliged to comply with the Rules of this part when the two vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision.
A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel or fairway shall keep as near to the outer limit of the channel or fairway which lies on her starboard side as is safe and practicable.
A vessel of less than 20 m in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway.
A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any other vessel navigating within a narrow channel or fairway.
A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such crossing impedes the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only within such channel or fairway. The latter vessel may use the sound signal prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in doubt as to the intention of the crossing vessel.
In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking can take place only if the vessel to be overtaken has to take action to permit safe passing, the vessel intending to overtake shall indicate her intention by sounding the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(i). The vessel to be overtaken shall, if in agreement, sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(ii) and take steps to permit safe passing. If in doubt she may sound the signals prescribed in Rule 34(d).
This Rule does not relieve the overtaking vessel of her obligation under Rule 13.
A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or fairway where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall navigate with particular alertness and caution and shall sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(e).
Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid anchoring in a narrow channel.
This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by the Organization and does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other rule.
A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:
proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane;
so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone;
normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.
A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.
A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 m in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.
Notwithstanding subparagraph (d)(i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.
A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except:
in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;
to engage in fishing within a separation zone.
A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation schemes shall do so with particular caution.
A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic separation scheme or in areas near its terminations.
A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin as is practicable.
A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any vessel following a traffic lane.
A vessel of less than 20 m in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the safe passage of a power-driven vessel following a traffic lane.
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic separation scheme is exempted from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for the laying, servicing or picking up of a submarine cable, within a traffic separation scheme, is exempted from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.